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The spot lights in the clubs create an atmosphere between cosy and disco, everybody drinks, most smoke and a few take psychedelic drugs Most raves in the city do get busted by the police In Pune, people were arrested during a pre-dawn raid on a rave party in March The ravers were allegedly using California drops A California drop is acid that is put on a stamp, which is then chewed; the cost of each drop is put between INR and Like the Irish woman suspected of supplying drugs at the Pune party, foreigners have been arrested for peddling illegal LSD, Ecstasy and cocaine at various rave parties in Bangalore and Mumbai Sometimes police directly raid rave parties in plain clothes and catch ravers red-handed.

Because club drugs are illicitly obtained and often are adulterated or substituted, these are usually known as unknown substances. In the ever-changing world of illegal drug distribution, Internet Web sites can be helpful in identifying the rapidly changing appearances of these substances Urine and serum toxicology screens may not be able to detect club drugs.

Ravers often present with concurrent ingestion of drugs with different pharmacological profile, which may include stimulant and depressant drugs. Therapist should always make an attempt to gather information from as many sources as possible regarding what was ingested and in what form. No standard treatment protocol has been identified for club drug overdose. Basic management should include cardiac monitoring, pulse oximetry, urinalysis, and performance of a comprehensive chemistry panel to check for electrolyte imbalance, renal toxicity, and possible underlying disorders Every effort should be made to control seizures.

Gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal and a cathartic may be useful in acute exposures if the drug was taken orally within the previous 60 min. Severe hypertension can be treated with labetalol, phentolamine, nitroprusside, or similar agents. Hyperthermia should be treated immediately with tepid water bathing and fanning. The serotonin antagonists chlorpromazine and cyproheptadine appear to be effective in mild to moderate cases of serotonin syndrome There are no specific antidotes for ingestion of club drugs, except for Rohypnol, which has already been mentioned. In view of the above, an alternative is to encourage harm reduction strategies Table III by ensuring that buildings meet safety and health standards, adequate security is provided to accommodate the large number of attendees and ravers are educated about health effects by trained volunteers.

NIDA website www. Harm reduction strategies for raves adapted from Weir, 2. Club drugs are a menace to the society. Their use, other than for strictly medical or approved research purposes, should be prohibited through legislation and awareness generation. The lack of research-based information on the adverse effects of these drugs has led to the emergence of a range of websites that may or may not provide accurate information. India has a huge teenage population which is being targeted by foreign drug peddlers to flourish their business.

Club drugs continue to be modified and evolve, making them very difficult to monitor. It is useful to know what drugs are being used in the community. Information can be gleaned from teens themselves at both routine and emergency visits, from local substance abuse programmes, and from the police. Only collective effort can stop this menace from engulfing the society. All health professionals should remain well informed regarding club drugs and their management protocol. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Indian J Med Res. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Received Feb This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Keywords: Club drugs, Ecstasy, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, ketamine, rave drugs, rohypnol. Table I Pharmacological and clinical profile of club drugs. Open in a separate window. Ecstasy 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA Ecstasy also called X, M, E, XTC, rolls, beans, Clarity, Adam, lover's speed, hug drug is a synthetic, psychoactive drug with both stimulant and hallucinogenic properties similar to methamphetamine and mescaline. GHB Gamma-hydroxybutyrate GHB is available as a clear liquid, white powder dissolved in water , tablet, or capsule and can be made in private residences with ingredients and recipes obtained on the Internet Ketamine Ketamine, a derivative of phencyclidine, is an anaesthetic that has been approved for human and animal use, both in trauma and emergency surgery as well as veterinary medicine.

Rohypnol Flunitrazepam Rohypnol comes in pill form and is typically taken orally, although reports of it being ground and snorted are also available 7. Club drugs: Indian scenario Indian data on club drugs are very limited with little efforts being made to gather systematic data regarding the same. Table II Significance of club drugs in the emerging Indian drug abuse scenario.

Management of club drugs abuse Because club drugs are illicitly obtained and often are adulterated or substituted, these are usually known as unknown substances. Conclusions Club drugs are a menace to the society. References 1. Rome ES. It's a rave new world: Rave culture and illicit drug use in the young. Cleve Clin J Med. Weir E. Raves: a review of the culture, the drugs and the prevention of harm. National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Office of National Drug Control Policy. Maxwell JC. Party drugs: Properties, prevalence, patterns, and problems. Subst Use Misuse. Drug Enforcement Administration. Buffum J, Moser C. MDMA and human sexual function. J Psychoactive Drugs. Eur Psychiatry. Bialer PA. Designer drugs in the general hospital. Psychiatr Clin North Am. Behavioural and neuropharmacological profiles of ketamine. Indian J Pharmacol. Gahlinger PM. Am Fam Physician. Hum Psychopharmacol Clin Exp. Am J Health Syst Pharm.

Goss J. Designer drugs: Assess and manage patients intoxicated with Ecstasy, GHB, or Rohypnol - the three most commonly abused designer drugs. J Emerg Med. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate serum levels and clinical syndrome after severe overdose. Ann Emerg Med. Chemistry and anatomy of excitatory amino acid systems. In: Meltzer HY, editor. Psychopharmacology: The third generation of progress.

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What Are Club Drugs and Why Are They Dangerous?

New York: Raven; Cardiovascular and other pharmacological actions of Ketamine. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Drug use in New Zealand: National surveys comparison and National survey on drug use and mental health. Drug use among Ontario students Drug Alcohol Depend. Assessment of Club Drug use in a treatment-seeking sample of individuals with Marijuana Dependence.

Am J Addict. The high prevalence of substance use disorders among recent MDMA users compared with other drug users: Implications for intervention. Addict Behav. Club drug use among youths in treatment for substance abuse. Multivariate modeling of club drug use initiation among gay and bisexual men. Greer GR, Tolbert R. A method of conducting therapeutic sessions with MDMA. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration. Federal Register. Ecstasy pill testing: Harm minimization gone too far? Parrott AC. A review of the proportion of Ecstasy tablets containing MDMA, their dosage levels, and the changing perceptions of purity.

Singh AN. Ecstasy and Prozac. New Scientist. Singh AN, Catalan J. Rave drug ecstasy and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor anti-depressants. Indian J Psychiatry. An integrated hypothesis for the serotonergic axonal loss induced by 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. A psycho-economic model of ecstasy consumption and related consequences: A multi-site study with community samples. Modifiable risk factors of Ecstasy use: Risk perception, current dependence, perceived control, and depression. Schwartz R, Norman M. MDMA and the rave: a review.

Hyponatremia and seizures after Ecstasy use. Postgrad Med J. Am J Med Sci. Pediatr Clin North Am. MDMA exposure alters cognitive and electrophysiological sensitivity to rapid tryptophan depletion in Rhesus monkeys. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. Ecstasy: Facts and fiction. Bhattacharya S, Powell JH. Psychol Med. Tong T, Boyer EW. Club drugs, smart drugs, raves, and circuit parties: An overview of the club scene.

Ped Emerg Care. Moeller MF, Kraemer T. Drugs of abuse monitoring in blood for control of driving under the influence of drugs. Ther Drug Monit. Acute poisoning from gamma-hydroxybutyrate in California. West J Med. The effects and consequences of selected club drugs. Subst Abuse Treat. Smith KM.

What Substance Are Considered to Be Club Drugs?

Drugs used in acquaintance rape. J Am Pharm Assoc. Gamma hydroxybutyric acid GHB intoxication.


  • Where Do Club Drugs Come From?.
  • Symmetry results for solutions of a semilinear nonhomogeneous problem.
  • Club drugs: review of the ‘rave’ with a note of concern for the Indian scenario?
  • Dangers of Club Drug Abuse.

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    New generation, new drugs, new harms: The rise and rise of club drugs

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    Club drugs: review of the ‘rave’ with a note of concern for the Indian scenario

    Jansen KLR. A review of the nonmedical use of ketamine: Use, users and consequences. Ketamine dependence. Anaesth Intensive Care. Flunitrazepam and its involvement in date or acquaintance rape. Flunitrazepam: A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic use. Flunitrazepam and triazolam: A comparison of behavioral effects and abuse liability.

    Introduction

    Gamma hydroxybutyric acid: Patterns of use, effects and withdrawal. Rohypnol, the date rape drug. C1in Pediatr. Ray R, editor. Chronic use of MDMA was found, first in laboratory animals and more recently in humans, to produce long-lasting, perhaps permanent, damage to the neurons that release serotonin, and consequent memory impairment. GHB can be produced in clear liquid, white powder, tablet, and capsule forms, and it is often used in combination with alcohol, making it even more dangerous.

    GHB has been increasingly involved in poisonings, overdoses, "date rapes," and fatalities. The drug is used predominantly by adolescents and young adults, often when they attend nightclubs and raves. GHB is often manufactured in homes with recipes and ingredients found and purchased on the Internet. Ketamine is an injectable anesthetic that has been approved for both human and animal use in medical settings since About 90 percent of the ketamine legally sold today is intended for veterinary use. It is not approved for prescription use in the United States, although it is approved in Europe and is used in more than 60 countries as a treatment for insomnia, as a sedative, and as a presurgery anesthetic.

    Methamphetamine is a toxic, addictive stimulant that affects many areas of the central nervous system. The drug is often made in clandestine laboratories from relatively inexpensive over-the-counter ingredients. It is being used by diverse groups, including young adults who attend raves, in many regions of the country. Available in many forms, methamphetamine can be smoked, snorted, injected, or orally ingested. LSD is a hallucinogen. It induces abnormalities in sensory perceptions. The effects of LSD are unpredictable depending on the amount taken, on the surroundings in which the drug is used, and on the user's personality, mood, and expectations.

    Tulsa: N. Lansing Ave. Oklahoma City, OK Fax MDMA is taken orally, usually in a tablet or a capsule. MDMA's effects last approximately 3 to 6 hours, though confusion, depression, sleep problems, anxiety, and paranoia have been reported to occur even weeks after the drug is taken. MDMA can produce a significant increase in heart rate and blood pressure and a sense of alertness like that associated with amphetamine use. The stimulant effects of MDMA, which enable users to dance for extended periods, may also lead to dehydration, hypertension, and heart or kidney failure.

    Some individuals are synthesizing GHB in home laboratories. These ingredients are found in a number of dietary supplements available in health food stores and gymnasiums to induce sleep, build muscles, and enhance sexual performance. GHB is a central nervous system depressant that can relax or sedate the body. At higher doses it can slow breathing and heart rate to dangerous levels. GHB's intoxicating effects begin 10 to 20 minutes after the drug is taken.

    The effects typically last up to 4 hours, depending on the dosage. At lower doses, GHB can relieve anxiety and produce relaxation; however, as the dose increases, the sedative effects may result in sleep and eventual coma or death. Overdose of GHB can occur rather quickly, and the signs are similar to those of other sedatives: drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, headache, loss of consciousness, loss of reflexes, impaired breathing, and ultimately death. GHB is cleared from the body relatively quickly, so it is sometimes difficult to detect in emergency rooms and other treatment facilities.