The population of North Korea was estimated at 9,, at the time of liberation. North Korea had almost no population gain through migration across borders during , and then lost more than one million people during the civil war, due to heavy casualties and a large refugee migration to South Korea. The pace of population growth was reduced sharply in the s due to fertility reduction.
In other words, fertility transition started there in the early s. North Korea disseminated contraceptives in the s, but banned them afterwards. Nevertheless, the trend of fertility decline could not be controlled and it appears to have dropped below the replacement level in the mid s, as was also the case in South Korea. The major driving force for fertility transition was poor family living conditions.
It is said nowadays that young people avoid marriage and young couples decline to have a second child as measures to cope with poverty and starvation caused by the collapse of the national economy. The North Korean government has banned the distribution of contraceptives and encouraged births, but various evidences suggest that fertility has plunged far below the level of replacement.
Concerning the economic situation of North Korea, there is little consensus of opinion among researchers and analysts. It is undoubted, however, that the country achieved a considerable economic growth during , and the socialist economy entered into a long period of stagnation in the late s. The per capita GNP was estimated to be in the range of dollars for and to increase to dollars by After reaching dollars in , the economy revealed a very slow growth until , followed by rapid deterioration in the s.
The food situation is known to have worsened greatly since the early s. Shortage of food is known to have brought about overall malnutrition, as indicated by a continuous shrinking of the height and weight of children since Considering the economic situation, mortality is believed to have declined marginally in the s and then risen substantially in the s, particularly during , when a series of famines hit the country hard. Unlike the official figures provided by North Korea, which show the same levels of mortality as South Korea, the South Korean government projected the North Korean life expectancy at birth as The same projection revealed a reduction of population in the later half of the s.
Concerning the future of Korean society, there are certainties and uncertainties. Demographic pictures are relatively certain, but people are uncertain of economic prospects. Population will increase to the peak of slightly more than 50 million in the mid s and will decrease rapidly afterward. Population aging will proceed more rapidly during the next three or four decades, until the proportion of the elderly reach one quarter of the total population.
A similar trend is expected in North Korea. Korea will face a new demographic situation that contrasts sharply with what prevailed throughout the twentieth century. For example, the labor force situation will be reversed. The Korean economy has been aided greatly by a growing labor force during , but will be burdened by the population aging and a shrinking labor force in the coming years.
North Korea and the national reunification might be crucial factors in evaluating the future of Korea. It is widely believed that the two Koreas will be reunited sometime in the earlier part of the twenty-first century. The timing and method would have tremendous demographic as well as economic implications for both Koreas. More immediate concerns in this regard might be the prospects of political relationship, economic cooperation, and labor migration between South and North Korea. Population Change and Development in Korea. Background Korean society has undergone a major transformation since Economic Development Profound changes have been noticed in every field of life since Urbanization The proportional increase of the urban population began in the early colonial period, but urbanization in its modern sense had to wait until North Korea Since the division of Korea in , South and North Korea have been hostile to each other and followed different paths in every field of life.
Future Prospects Concerning the future of Korean society, there are certainties and uncertainties. Author: Kwon Tai-Hwan. Additional Background Reading on Asia. Student Jerry Tian gives us his perspective. North Korea: Looking Beyond the Stereotypes. We've compiled resources to help you cut through the stereotypes surrounding North Korea and more deeply examine the country, its people, and the complexities of its politics and nuclear program. China Learning Initiatives. The World's Most Incredible Alphabet.
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Where is population the highest? Where is it slowing down? Where will people live? To explore these questions, we turn to demography , or the study of populations. Three of the most important components affecting the issues above are fertility, mortality, and migration. The fertility rate of a society is a measure noting the number of children born. The fertility number is generally lower than the fecundity number, which measures the potential number of children that could be born to women of childbearing age. Sociologists measure fertility using the crude birthrate the number of live births per 1, people per year.
Just as fertility measures childbearing, the mortality rate is a measure of the number of people who die. The crude death rate is a number derived from the number of deaths per 1, people per year. When analyzed together, fertility and mortality rates help researchers understand the overall growth occurring in a population.
Another key element in studying populations is the movement of people into and out of an area. Migration may take the form of immigration, which describes movement into an area to take up permanent residence, or emigration, which refers to movement out of an area to another place of permanent residence. Changing fertility, mortality, and migration rates make up the total population composition , a snapshot of the demographic profile of a population. This number can be measured for societies, nations, world regions, or other groups.
The population composition includes the sex ratio the number of men for every hundred women as well as the population pyramid a picture of population distribution by sex and age Figure Table Varying Fertility and Mortality Rated by Country. As Table Do these statistics surprise you? How do you think the population makeup impacts the political climate and economics of the different countries?
What factors lead to a sex ratio in which men outnumber women? Sociologists have long looked at population issues as central to understanding human interactions. Below we will look at four theories about population that inform sociological thought: Malthusian, zero population growth, cornucopian, and demographic transition theories. He identified these factors as war, famine, and disease Malthus Thinking practically, Malthus saw that people could only produce so much food in a given year, yet the population was increasing at an exponential rate. Eventually, he thought people would run out of food and begin to starve.
They would go to war over the increasingly scarce resources, reduce the population to a manageable level, and the cycle would begin anew. Of course, this has not exactly happened. So what happened? There are three reasons that sociologists suggest we continue to expand the population of our planet. First, technological increases in food production have increased both the amount and quality of calories we can produce per person. Second, human ingenuity has developed new medicine to curtail death through disease.
Finally, the development and widespread use of contraception and other forms of family planning have decreased the speed at which our population increases. But what about the future? His ideas suggest that the human population is moving rapidly toward complete environmental collapse, as privileged people use up or pollute a number of environmental resources, such as water and air. He advocated for a goal of zero population growth ZPG , in which the number of people entering a population through birth or immigration is equal to the number of people leaving it via death or emigration.
While support for this concept is mixed, it is still considered a possible solution to global overpopulation. Cornucopian theory scoffs at the idea of humans wiping themselves out; it asserts that human ingenuity can resolve any environmental or social issues that develop. As an example, it points to the issue of food supply. If we need more food, the theory contends, agricultural scientists will figure out how to grow it, as they have already been doing for centuries.
After all, in this perspective, human ingenuity has been up to the task for thousands of years and there is no reason for that pattern not to continue Simon Whether you believe that we are headed for environmental disaster and the end of human existence as we know it, or you think people will always adapt to changing circumstances, some sociologists argue there are clear patterns that can be seen in population growth.
Modernization theorists argue that societies develop along a predictable continuum as they evolve from unindustrialized to postindustrial. Following this model, demographic transition theory Caldwell and Caldwell suggests that future population growth will develop along a predictable four-stage model. In Stage 1, birth, death, and infant mortality rates are all high, while life expectancy is short. As countries begin to industrialize, they enter Stage 2, where birth rates are higher while infant mortality and the death rates drop.
Life expectancy also increases. Afghanistan is currently in this stage. Stage 3 occurs once a society is thoroughly industrialized; birth rates decline, while life expectancy continues to increase.
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Death rates continue to decrease. In the final phase, Stage 4, we see the postindustrial era of a society. Birth and death rates are low, people are healthier and live longer, and society enters a phase of population stability. Overall population may even decline. That number might not seem particularly jarring on its own; after all, we all know there are lots of people around.
But consider the fact that human population grew very slowly for most of our existence, then doubled in the span of half a century to reach 6 billion in And now, just over ten years later, we have added another billion. A look at the graph of projected population indicates that growth is not only going to continue, but it will continue at a rapid rate.
The United Nations Population Fund categorizes nations as high fertility, intermediate fertility, or low fertility. For countries with intermediate fertility rates the United States, India, and Mexico all fall into this category , growth is expected to be about 26 percent. Figures It would be impossible to discuss population growth and trends without addressing access to family planning resources and birth control.
As the stages of population growth indicate, more industrialized countries see birth rates decline as families limit the number of children they have. Today, many people—over million—still lack access to safe family planning, according to USAID Many social scholars would assert that until women are able to have only the children they want and can care for, the poorest countries will always bear the worst burden of overpopulation.
Urbanization is the study of the social, political, and economic relationships in cities, and someone specializing in urban sociology would study those relationships. In some ways, cities can be microcosms of universal human behaviour, while in others they provide a unique environment that yields their own brand of human behaviour. There is no strict dividing line between rural and urban; rather, there is a continuum where one bleeds into the other.
However, once a geographically concentrated population has reached approximately , people, it typically behaves like a city regardless of what its designation might be. According to sociologist Gideon Sjoberg , there are three prerequisites for the development of a city. First, good environment with fresh water and a favourable climate; second, advanced technology, which will produce a food surplus to support non-farmers; and third, strong social organization to ensure social stability and a stable economy. Most scholars agree that the first cities were developed somewhere in ancient Mesopotamia, though there are disagreements about exactly where.
The factors limiting the size of ancient cities included lack of adequate sewage control, limited food supply, and immigration restrictions. For example, serfs were tied to the land, and transportation was limited and inefficient. The percentage of Canadians living in cities went from 19 percent in to 49 percent in Statistics Canada As more and more opportunities for work appeared in factories, workers left farms and the rural communities that housed them to move to the cities.
Urban development in Canada in this period focused on Montreal and Toronto, which were the two major hubs of transportation, commerce, and industrial production in the country. These cities began to take on a modern industrial urban form with tall office towers downtown and a vast spatial expansion of suburbs surrounding them.
Following the Industrial Era, urbanization in Canada from the s onward took the form of the corporate city. Stelter describes the corporate city as being more focused economically on corporate management and financial and other related professional services than industrial production. Five features define the form of corporate cities: dispersal of population in suburbs, high-rise apartment buildings, isolated industrial parks, downtown cores of office towers, and suburban shopping malls.
This development was made possible by the reorientation of the city to automobile and truck use, deindustrialization and the rise of the service and knowledge economy, and a spatial decentralization of the population. Finally we might note the transformation of the corporate city into a postmodern city form. Postmodern cities are defined by their orientation to circuits of global consumption, the fragmentation of previously homogeneous urban cultures, and the emergence of multiple centres or cores.
John Hannigan describes three related developments that characterize the postmodern city: the edge city, dual city, and fantasy city formations. Victoria, B. As cities grew more crowded, and often more impoverished and costly, more and more people began to migrate back out of them. In the s, as the urban population greatly expanded and transportation options improved, suburbs developed. Suburbs are the communities surrounding cities, typically close enough for a daily commute in, but far enough away to allow for more space than city living affords.
The bucolic suburban landscape of the early 20th century has largely disappeared due to sprawl. Suburban sprawl contributes to traffic congestion, which in turn contributes to commuting time. Commuting times and distances have continued to increase as new suburbs developed farther and farther from city centres.
Simultaneously, this dynamic contributed to an exponential increase in natural resource use, like petroleum, which sequentially increased pollution in the form of carbon emissions. As the suburbs became more crowded and lost their charm, those who could afford it turned to the exurbs , communities that exist outside the ring of suburbs and are typically populated by even wealthier families who want more space and have the resources to lengthen their commute.
It is interesting to note that unlike U. As cities evolve from industrial to postindustrial, this practice of gentrification becomes more common. Gentrification refers to members of the middle and upper classes entering city areas that have been historically less affluent and renovating properties while the poor urban underclass are forced by resulting price pressures to leave those neighbourhoods. This practice is widespread and the lower class is pushed into increasingly decaying portions of the city. Together, the city centres, suburbs, exurbs, and metropolitan areas all combine to form a metropolis.
New York was the first North American megalopolis , a huge urban corridor encompassing multiple cities and their surrounding suburbs. These metropolises use vast quantities of natural resources and are a growing part of the North American landscape. What makes a suburb a suburb? Simply, a suburb is a community surrounding a city. In Canada, most consider the suburbs home to upper- and middle-class people with private homes. In fact, the banlieues of Paris are notorious for their ethnic violence and crime, with higher unemployment and more residents living in poverty than in the city centre.
Further, the banlieues have a much higher immigrant population, which in Paris is mostly Arabic and African immigrants. In , serious riots broke out in the banlieue of Clichy-sous-Bois after two boys were electrocuted while hiding from the police. They were hiding, it is believed, because they were in the wrong place at the wrong time, near the scene of a break-in, and they were afraid the police would not believe their innocence. After the deaths and subsequent riots, Sarkozy reiterated his zero tolerance policy toward violence and sent in more police.
Ultimately, the violence spread across more than 30 towns and cities in France. Thousands of cars were burned, many hundred were arrested, and both police and protesters suffered serious injuries. Then-President Jacques Chirac responded by pledging more money for housing programs, jobs programs, and education programs to help the banlieues solve the underlying problems that led to such disastrous unrest.
None of the newly launched programs were effective. President Sarkozy ran on a platform of tough regulations toward young offenders, and in the country elected him.
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More riots ensued as a response to his election. Six years after the Clichy-sous-Bois riot, circumstances are no better for those in the banlieues. The development of factories brought people from rural to urban areas, and new technology increased the efficiency of transportation, food production, and food preservation. For example, from the mids to the early s, London increased its population from , to 7 million Old Bailey Proceedings Online Shanghai almost tripled its population from 7.
It is projected to reach Two developments might serve to illustrate some of the stark differences in the global experience of urbanization: the formation of slum cities and global cities. Slum cities refer to the development on the outskirts of cities of unplanned shantytowns or squats with no access to clean water, sanitation, or other municipal services. These slums exist largely outside the rule of law and have become centres for child labour, prostitution, criminal activities, and struggles between gangs and paramilitary forces for control.
He notes that while slum residents constitute only 6 percent of the urban population in developed countries, they constitute As a result, slum cities have become the blueprint for urban development in the developing world. On the other side of the phenomenon of global urbanization are global cities like London, New York, and Tokyo. Saskia Sassen describes the global city as a unique development based on the new role of cities in the circuits of global information and global capital circulation and accumulation.
Global cities become centres for financial and corporate services, providing a technical and information infrastructure and a pool of human resources skills, professional and technical services, consulting services, etc. As such, they are progressively detached, economically and socially, from their local and national political-geographic contexts.
They become instead nodes in a global network of informational, economic, and financial transactions or flows. It becomes possible in this sense to say that New York is closer to Tokyo and London in terms of the number of direct transactions between them than it is to Philadelphia or Baltimore. Sassen emphasizes three important tendencies that develop from the formation of global cities: a concentration of wealth in the corporate sectors of these cities, a growing disconnection between the cities and their immediate geographic regions, and the development of a large marginalized population that is excluded from the job market for these high-end activities.
The increasing number of global cities:. As the examples above illustrate, the issues of urbanization play significant roles in the study of sociology. Race, economics, and human behaviour intersect in cities. Functional perspectives on urbanization focus generally on the ecology of the city, while conflict perspective tends to focus on political economy. Human ecology is a functionalist field of study that focuses on the relationship between people and their built and natural physical environments Park According to this Chicago School approach, urban land use and urban population distribution occurs in a predictable pattern once we understand how people relate to their living environment.
For example, in Canada, we have a transportation system geared to accommodate individuals and families in the form of interprovincial highways built for cars. In contrast, most parts of Europe emphasize public transportation such as high-speed rail and commuter lines, as well as walking and bicycling. The concentric zone model Burgess is perhaps the most famous example of human ecology. In this model, Zone A, in the heart of the city, is the centre of the business and cultural district.
Zone B, the concentric circle surrounding the city centre, is composed of formerly wealthy homes split into cheap apartments for new immigrant populations; this zone also houses small manufacturers, pawn shops, and other marginal businesses. Zone C consists of the homes of the working class and established ethnic enclaves.
Zone D consists of wealthy homes, white-collar workers, and shopping centres. Zone E contains the estates of the upper class exurbs and the suburbs. One way to do this is to examine how urban areas change according to specific decisions made by political and economic leaders. City space is acted on primarily as a commodity that is bought and sold for profit. For example, sociologists Feagin and Parker suggested three aspects to understanding how political and economic leaders control urban growth.
First, economic and political leaders work alongside each other to effect change in urban growth and decline, determining where money flows and how land use is regulated. Second, exchange value and use value are balanced to favour the middle and upper classes so that, for example, public land in poor neighbourhoods may be rezoned for use as industrial land. Finally, urban development is dependent on both structure groups such as local government and agency individuals including business people and activists , and these groups engage in a push-pull dynamic that determines where and how land is actually used.
For example, NIMBY not in my backyard movements are more likely to emerge in middle- and upper-class neighbourhoods, so these groups have more control over the usage of local land. The subfield of environmental sociology studies how humans interact with their environments. This field is closely related to human ecology, which focuses on the relationship between people and their built and natural environment.
This is an area that is garnering more attention as extreme weather patterns and policy battles over climate change dominate the news. A key factor of environmental sociology is the concept of carrying capacity , which refers to the maximum amount of life that can be sustained within a given area. While this concept can refer to grazing lands or to rivers, it also can be applied to the Earth as a whole.
But Hardin was not the first to notice the phenomenon. Back in the s, Oxford economist William Forster Lloyd looked at the devastated public grazing commons and the unhealthy cattle subject to such limited grazing, and saw, in essence, that the carrying capacity of the commons had been exceeded. However, since no one held responsibility for the land as it was open to all , no one was willing to make sacrifices to improve it. Cattle grazers benefited from adding more cattle to their herd, but they did not have to take on the responsibility of the destroyed lands that were being damaged by overgrazing.
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So there was an incentive for them to add more head of cattle, and no incentive for restraint. Satellite photos of Africa taken in the s showed this practice to dramatic effect. The images depicted a dark irregular area over miles around. When seen from above, there was a large fenced area, where plenty of grass was growing. Outside the fence, the ground was bare and devastated. The reason was simple: the fenced land was privately owned by informed farmers who carefully rotated their grazing animals and allowed the fields to lie fallow periodically.
Outside the fence was land used by nomads. The nomads, like the herdsmen in s Oxford, increased their heads of cattle without planning for its impact on the greater good. The soil eroded, the plants died, then the cattle died, and, ultimately, some of the people died. How does this affect those of us who do not need to graze our cattle? Well, like the cows, we all need food, water, and clean air to survive. Whether for cattle or humans, when too many take with too little thought to the rest of the population, the result is usually tragedy.
However, once contaminant levels reach a certain point, the results can be catastrophic. Look at your watch. Wait 15 seconds. Then another In that time, two children have died from lack of access to clean drinking water. Access to safe water is one of the most basic human needs, and it is woefully out of reach for millions of people on the planet.
Many of the major diseases that peripheral countries battle, such as diarrhea, cholera, and typhoid, are caused by contaminated water. Often, young children are unable to go to school because they must instead walk several hours a day just to collect potable water for their family. The situation is only getting more dire as the global population increases. Water is a key scarce resource in the 21st century. As every child learns in school, 70 percent of Earth is made of water. Despite that figure, there is a finite amount of water useable by humans and it is constantly used and reused in a sustainable water cycle.
The way that humans use this abundant natural resource, however, renders much of it unsuitable for consumption and unable to sustain life. For instance, it takes two and a half litres of water to produce a single litre of Coca-Cola. The company and its bottlers use close to billion litres of water a year, often in locales that are short of useable water Blanchard Industrial processes like tars sands extraction use vast amounts of water that is not returned to the natural cycle. The methods of food production used by many core nations rely on liberal doses of nitrogen and pesticides, which end up back in the water supply.
In some cases, water pollution affects the quality of the aquatic life consumed by water and land animals. As we move along the food chain, the pollutants travel from prey to predator. Since humans consume at all levels of the food chain, we ultimately consume the carcinogens, such as mercury, accumulated through several branches of the food web. In China, as in Depression-era Oklahoma, over-tilling soil in an attempt to expand agriculture has resulted in the disappearance of large patches of topsoil.
Soil erosion and desertification are just two of the many forms of soil pollution. In addition, all of the chemicals and pollutants that harm our water supplies can also leach into soil with similar effects. Brown zones where nothing can grow are common results of soil pollution.
One demand of the population boom on the planet is an attendant requirement for more food to be produced.
The immediate result was positive: food yields went up and burgeoning populations were fed. But as time has gone on, these areas have fallen into even more difficult straits as the damage done by modern methods leave traditional farmers with less than they had to start.
Dredging certain beaches in an attempt to maintain valuable beachfront property from coastal erosion has resulted in greater storm impact on shorelines, and damage to beach ecosystems Turneffe Atoll Trust The results of these dredging projects have damaged reefs, sea grass beds, and shorelines, and can kill off large swaths of marine life. Ultimately, this damage threatens local fisheries, tourism, and other parts of the local economy. Where is your last cell phone? What about the one before that?
Or the huge old television set your family had before flat screens became popular? For most of us, the answer is a sheepish shrug.
In several provinces, there are product stewardship programs that oblige manufacturers and retailers to pay a per-item fee to fund electronic recycling Fishlock , but it is not always clear what happens to the items after they are recycled. Garbage creation and control are major issues for most core and industrializing nations, quickly becoming one of the most critical environmental issues faced in North America. North Americans buy products, use them, and then throw them away.
There are two primary means of waste disposal in Canada: landfill and incineration. When it comes to dangerous toxins, neither is a good choice. In the case of more innocuous trash, the synthetic Styrofoam and plastics that many of us use every day do not dissolve in a natural way. Burn them, and they release carcinogens into the air. Their improper intentional or not incineration adds to air pollution and increases smog. Dump them in landfills, and they do not decompose. As landfill sites fill up, we risk an increase in groundwater contamination. Electronic waste, or e-waste, is one of the fastest growing segments of garbage.
And it is far more problematic than even the mountains of broken plastic and rusty metal that plague the environment. E-waste is the name for obsolete, broken, and worn-out electronics—from computers to mobile phones to televisions. The challenge is that these products, which are multiplying at alarming rates thanks in part to planned obsolescence designing products to quickly become outdated and then replaced by the constant emergence of newer and cheaper electronics , have toxic chemicals and precious metals in them, which makes for a dangerous combination.
So where do they go? In fact, it is one of the dirtiest jobs around. Overseas, without the benefit of environmental regulation, e-waste dumps become a kind of boomtown for entrepreneurs willing to sort through endless stacks of broken-down electronics for tiny bits of valuable copper, silver, and other precious metals.
Unfortunately, in their hunt, these workers are exposed to deadly toxins. These regulations both limit the amount of toxins allowed in electronics and address the issue of end-of-life recycling. But not surprisingly, corporations, while insisting they are greening their process, often fight stricter regulations. Meanwhile, many environmental groups, including the activist group Greenpeace, have taken up the cause. Greenpeace states that it is working to get companies to:.
Greenpeace produces annual ratings of how well companies are meeting these goals so that consumers can see how brands stack up. For instance, Apple moved up five spots since the report.
Hopefully, consumers will vote with their wallets, and the greener companies will be rewarded. Smog hangs heavily over the major cities, sometimes grounding aircraft that cannot navigate through it. Pedestrians and cyclists wear masks to protect themselves. In Beijing, citizens are skeptical that the government-issued daily pollution ratings are trustworthy.kb.crosspoint.es/on-a-carousel.php
Introduction to Population Demographics
Increasingly, they are taking their own pollution measurements in the hopes that accurate information will galvanize others to action. Given that some days they can barely see down the street, they hope that action comes soon Papenfuss The amount of air pollution varies from locale to locale, and you may be more personally affected than you realize. Along with oxygen, most of the time we are also breathing in soot, hydrocarbons, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur oxides. Ground-level ozone O3 , which is associated with eye irritation, respiratory problems, and heart diseases, is a colourless gas that forms when nitrous oxides and volatile organic compounds from engine exhaust and industrial processes combine in sunlight.