Japanese Communication: Language and Thought in Context opens with a comparison of basic American and Japanese values via cultural icons--the cowboy and the samurai--before leading the reader to the key concept in her study: rationality. Table of Contents. Cover Download Save. Frontmatter Download Save. Contents pp. Preface pp. Introduction: Japanese Communication pp. Part 1 The Context of Japanese Communication pp.
Part 2 Japanese Language in Context pp. Part 3 Japanese Thought in Context pp. Part 4 Japanese Communicationin Global Context pp.
Intercultural Communication pp. Appendix pp. References pp. Harcourt Brace Japan Inc. Like Current Japanese , the motivation and purpose of this text can be summarized as follows: What are the major obstacles faced by college students of foreign languages? I have been teaching Japanese at the college level in North America for fourteen years.
Judging from my experience at five universities, the issue is intercultural communication with practical language skills; namely, recognizing and dealing with intercultural differences while learning to use the language as an effective means of communication. Regardless of the distinction between state and private institutions, students at intermediate and advanced levels who have finished basic training in grammar, pronunciation, and basic kanji, can be categorized into the following groups: 1. Those who are familiar with modern Japanese society but cannot discuss it in Japanese.
Those who have misconceptions about Japan. These misconceptions could be good or bad in terms of images of Japan, but are certainly outdated. Some of these students can communicate in Japanese, others cannot Ronald Suleski , Hiroko Masada. All languages have affective expressions which help to enrich communication by implying subtle differences, such as varying degrees of annoyance or resignation, skepticism or humor. Native speakers of a language use these expressions all the time to flavor their speech. They are usually quick to realize the implication of the affective expression, and they often act on it rather than on the direct meaning of the sentence.
A large number of affective expressions are not slang terms, but are standard words used by every native speaker. Native speakers of English use words such as "I really can't help you now," or "that was a stupid thing to do," as value-laden terms which fall into the category of affective expressions because of the strong nuances they imply. Anne Matsumoto Stewart. The serious student, studying in school where hiragana and kanji maintain pride of place, is often left with a less than perfect introduction to the katakana syllabary.
The casual learner the tourist, business person, etc. It is for these two divergent types of reader that the present book was written. One of the primary functions of katakana is for marking native Japanese words for emphasis, much as italics is used in English. It is such words as this, of which there are a considerable number, that the casual learner will eventually be able to pick up after going through this book. Once the means of transcription has been learned - that is, katakana - the meanings of the words themselves can often Naoko Chino. Take, for instance, Japanese nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs.
Once you have a little grammar under your belt, you can pick them up and squirrel them away with relative ease. For some reason, though, this doesn't work with particles. They can't be looked up, pinned down, or pigeonholed in the same way that their fellows can. Yet their correct usage is essential to speaking Japanese with any degree of fluency. Why are particles so elusive? Because particles are next to meaningless as isolated entities. A particle, in fact, might be defined as a non-conjugating part of speech, bearing an absolute minimum of independent meaning, which attaches itself to other parts of speech and thereby places them in context.
Thus, a statement consisting of a single particle wouldn't convey much meaning. But the addition of another word would make a world of difference. The rule of thumb might be: Japanese particles have virtually no meaning bereft of context. In this book, I propose to clarify the functions of a considerable number of particles, to describe their various usages, and, most important, to exemplify each and every usage with sample sentences. Only in this way - through context - can the student truly come to grips with the Japanese particle.
Don't be surprised by certain of the particles taken up here. For example, there is -ba , as in nomeba if [you] drink. You may think that -ba is not a particle at all, but an inflection of the verb nomu You may even have egged on a rowdy drinking buddy by telling him that the fast-approaching pound bouncer everyone called "Hulk" was really just a big of "pussycat.
Japanese has accumulated a linguistic menagerie over the ages that is as wide-ranging as the sea, land, and sky that nurtures the national consciousness and has given generations of Japanese wags food for thought as well as the palate. Surprisingly, some idioms are precisely the same as their English equivalent: karasu no ashiato for those pesky "crows feet" around the corners of your aging eyes, mizu o hanareta sakana to describe someone who is out of his element or "like a fish out of water.
Ushi no yodare cow saliva , for example, is used of something that drags on interminably, while kingyo no fun goldfish poop is a graphic depiction of someone you want badly to shake but who just keeps hanging on The Japan Times , Tokyo.
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Kuroshio Shuppan , Tokyo. Kakuko Shoji. During my thirty-year teaching career, I have seen a great variety of mistakes, many of which were the result of cultural differences or differences in the way that second-language learners and native speakers of Japanese conceptualize language. The book attempts to help students become aware of these differences in conceptualization and to provide them with the linguistic tools to overcome these differences, thereby allowing their ideas to flow more naturally.
The book focuses on those grammatical items, idiomatic expressions, and set phrases that have proven to be the most problematic to my students. The patterns are presented with examples, and tips are provided throughout the text to highlight particularly important points.
A few exercises are also included to allow students an opportunity to experiment with what they have learned. Note that F refers to patterns that are predominantly feminine and M to those predominantly masculine. Samuel E. Charles E. That is to put you into immediate communication with Japanese who speak little or no English. You will find useful English words with their most common Japanese equivalents. Only the most frequent meanings of the English words have been included; naturally, each English word has many other meanings.
But the chances are, the meaning you want is the one given here. When the Japanese equivalent is a verb, it is given in the polite present form: - mas' "does" or "will do. From the gerund, you can make the plain past tense by changing - te or - de to - ta or - da. Some English adjectives correspond to Japanese nouns, and these fall into two categories: ordinary nouns, which link to a following noun with the word no ; and copular nouns, which link to a following noun with the word na Michiko Kasahara , Zhang Li Lin.
Goken , Tokyo. Taishukan Publishing Company , Tokyo. Various on and kun reading s , English meaning s , a kanji component called the radical, stroke order and number, compound words, and in most cases, short example sentences are provided for each kanji. A "story" or etymology is added to each kanji and should unfold the deeper meaning of each character. Users of this volume may, however, enjoy seeing new compounds, while expanding their vocabulary and gaining a deeper appreciation of kanji in general Arthur Rose-Innes.
Harvard University Press , Cambridge, Mass.. American edition ,25 pp, 18 cm,  kanji World War II necessitated the publication in the United States of a new edition of Rose-Innes's invaluable dictionary, because this country was cut off from the former sources of supply of the dictionary and because the demand and need for all Japanese dictionaries was greatly increased. To meet this need, the Department of Far Eastern Languages of Harvard University undertook the project of publishing in the United States this dictionary as well as other essential Chinese and Japanese dictionaries, and the Rockefeller Foundation supplied the necessary funds for the enterprise.
This American edition of the dictionary has been reproduced by a photolithographic process from the second enlarged edition of In order to facilitate cross-reference between it and Daijiten a much larger Japanese dictionary of Chinese characters, published under the supervision of the late Professor M. Ueda , the numbers under which the characters are listed in Daijiten have been added to the characters in this edition. It has well proven its ability to guide the new student, from the uncertainties of one's first exposure to this fascinating language, through to the ease of everyday conversational fluency.
Beginning Japanese makes no attempt at promising that learning Japanese is easy, nor does it claim to offer shortcuts. Rather, in these two volumes, the "Jorden philosophy" is one that emphasizes the careful study of the fundamentals of the Japanese language-it is the author's firm conviction that thorough training at the beginning level will prove far more valuable than other less systematic methods. The original prospectus and objectives of Beginning Japanese have endured during a period of intense change in the techniques of teaching second languages, and this is eloquent testimony to the skill with which Dr.
Eleanor Harz Jorden has structured her work: Beginning Japanese is just as valid and valuable a learning tool today as it was when first published. The Charles E. Tuttle Company is pleased to be able to continue to keep this basic text in print, and believes that it will continue to serve well the needs of the many, serious beginning students of the Japanese language. Introduction from Part 1: Beginning Japanese Parts I and II contains thirty-five lessons, all of which have the same basic pattern and involve the same procedures.
Each lesson requires many hours of class work supplemented by outside study and, if possible, laboratory work. The method underlying this text is guided imitation; the aim is automaticity. Ideally, there are two teachers: under the supervision of a scientific linguist, who talks ABOUT Japanese, the student learns to speak the language in direct imitation of a tutor who is a native speaker of Japanese.
The tutor drills on the Japanese in the text, providing an authentic model for the student to imitate. Statements on how the language is manipulated are included in the explanatory notes in the text, which may be supplemented, if necessary, by further discussions on the part of the linguist.
Language learning is overlearning. Through memorization of whole utterances, and substitution within and manipulation of these utterances, a student achieves the fluency and automaticity that are necessary for control of a language. Language learning involves acquiring a new set of habits, and habits must be automatic. Just as the experienced driver performs the mechanics of driving - turning on the engine, shifting gears, applying the brakes, etc. This textbook is concerned only with spoken Japanese. Reading and writing involve a different set of habits and are best begun after acquiring some basic control of the spoken language.
It is suggested that students interested in studying written Japanese begin using an introductory reading text only after completing at least ten or fifteen lessons of this volume. Do not permit yourself to speak more slowly than your tutor, and do not ask him to speak more slowly than is natural for him. The ability to understand slow, deliberate speech never heard outside of a classroom is of little practical value.
The aim of the student should be to learn Japanese as it is spoken by the Japanese-not an artificial classroom dialect. A class which fluctuates between Japanese and English, where valuable repetition and drill aimed at developing fluency are constantly interrupted by English questions and comments, never achieves the desired results. It is recommended that a specific time be designated as discussion period Bernard Bloch. Until the book is out, I don't expect to publish anything on the subject, unless people think it would be a good idea to send up some trial balloons by the way of articles in Language or JAOS [Journal of the American Oriental Society].
I may do that. The book was never published; five articles were. The present volume, which brings together those five articles for the first time in one place, may therefore in a certain sense lay claim to being that "small book" on colloquial Japanese to which Bloch often referred, but which never appeared Akihiko Yonekawa , translated by Jeff Garrison. Or, to put it differently, the language of the people is necessarily not the language of the textbooks. There are, of course, many cogent reasons for this, as well as some reasons that are perhaps not so cogent.
In any case, the present book proposes to help you, the student, go beyond the language of the textbooks by offering a number of useful, meaningful, and interesting words and phrases that are generally unavailable in the school curriculum-at least not with the meanings given here. In short, this book aims to help the student to acquire in a relatively easy manner vocabulary that would otherwise require years upon years of Japanese residency. The entry words and phrases are all colloquial or slang.
It also means, secondarily, that their meanings have occasionally taken on slightly different nuances from what is considered standard. Many of these words rave already been adopted into large Japanese-language dictionaries; others have not. The criteria for inclusion in this book are several: frequency of use, usefulness, and sheer interest.
The last aspect, "interest," I feel is important, for an interest in words is a strong stimulus to learning a language. The slang included here is, for the most part, traditional slang. It has been accepted as slang for a long time, and will likely retain that status for decades to come. This is the slang that one hears in movies or reads in novels, and thus is most likely to be reinforced through those media as well as "on the street. Other slang included here is more contemporary, popular among high school and university students, but even then I have tried to select items that will be long-lived.
Longevity, in fact, has set the tone for the book, in many crucial ways. It seemed to me that students who want to get closer to the vernacular might first wish to start with What is fairly established rather than with what is ephemeral, transient, and fugitive. Naturally, the fleeting can be fascinating, just as the historical can Kodansha International , Tokyo. Whereas Japan's economy was once so weak that it was often said that "when America sneezes, Japan catches cold," the Japanese economy today ranks alongside that of America and the European Union in terms of its impact on the world economy.
Japanese products are exported to every region of the world, and in recent years not only large enterprises but even small and medium-size enterprises have been making inroads overseas.
Interest in Japan has grown, particularly as regards to its economy. In response to this interest, NHK's internationally broadcast "Radio Japan," in cooperation with the private think-tank Daiwa Institute of Research created a series of programs aimed at explaining the Japanese economy in simple terms. This year-long series was broadcast starting in April What were the secrets of Japan's rapid economic growth following the war? What issues did Japan encounter as a result of its economic growth? What effect did this have on the lives of Japan's workers? It was hoped that these explanations would help people to better understand the situation of Japan's economy as a whole.
This volume is based on these broadcasts, which have been partially revised and supplemented with new data. In the field of economic activity, the themes of internationalization and mutual coexistence are growing ever stronger. We hope that this volume will be of help to non-Japanese readers who seek a better understanding of the Japanese economy. Jeffrey G. If that is what you wanted, and the title misled you into thinking this book was about, I apologize.
If, on the other hand, you are a student of the Japanese language who has the basics down and would like to spend a few idle moments learning some of the more colorful colloquial expressions in the Japanese language, many of which can be used in all but the most formal situations, then you may have found the book you were looking for. Each entry is followed by a literal English translation, an explanation, English equivalents, and one or more Japanese examples with possible English translations.
The examples are all complete, original sentences, some short and others more lengthy, designed to show the range of usage for each expression. In Japanese as in English, idioms about the body abound. A native speaker of Japanese may want someone to "use his head" atama o tsukau and mean exactly the same thing as a speaker of English. Or he may decide to "wash his feet" ashi o arau , which in idiomatic usage is the equivalent of "wash one's hands," as in "I'm going to wash my hands of the whole deal.
The former, word for word, means to "pull someone's leg," which of course, in English, is to "tease" Breaking into Japanese Literature is specially designed to help you bypass all the frustration and actually enjoy classics of Japanese literature. The unique layout-with the original Japanese story in large print, an easy-to-follow English translation and a custom dictionary - was created for maximum clarity and ease of use. There's no need to spend time consulting reference books when everything you need to know is right there in front of your nose. To make Japanese literature fun, Breaking into Japanese Literature also has some unique extra features: mini-biographies to tell you about the authors' lives and works, individual story prefaces to alert you to related works of literature or film, and original illustrations to fire your imagination.
Breaking into Japanese Literature provides all the backup you need to break through to a new and undiscovered world-the world of great Japanese fiction. All the hard work has been taken care of so you can enjoy the pleasures of the mind. Why not take advantage? Nissan Motor Co. The book has also been warmly welcomed all over the world by schools, governmental and private organizations and, most important, by individual businessmen and women.
Japan Publications Trading Co. He was born in in Tsuwano in present-day Shimane Prefecture, the son of a doctor of high standing in the Tsuwano clan. His serious education began early at the age of 5 , and after he had learned all there was to be learned in his part of the country, his father sent him to Tokyo for further studies.
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He was too young to enter Tokyo University, but his father doctored his birth certificate to make him two years older, and he thus successfully entered the Medical Faculty of that university. He graduated from there in July - at the age of 20! He entered the Japanese army as a doctor in December of that same year. Because he was intellectually gifted, the army sent him to Germany to study the science of hygiene, which he studied at several universities in Germany for four years. He returned to Japan in , full of knowledge about hygiene, and about European ways as well On the contrary, we have experienced great pleasure in rising to the challenge of producing a book that was not run-of-the-mill.
To begin with, we had several advantages. We had the dictionary framework provided in electronic form by Collins Dictionary Division. Then we had computers running powerful Japanese word processing software. Together these factors saved us from the drudgery and writer's cramp caused by writing thousands and thousands of manuscript pages by hand. They also eliminated the drudgery of correcting in proof the innumerable mistakes introduced by typesetters misinterpreting our handwriting.
The challenge of producing "a better mousetrap" also provided motivation that eliminated drudgery. In order to keep the dictionary truly pocket-sized, we aimed at providing one translation for each word, or for each meaning of a word. Where several possible translations existed, we chose the one with the highest frequency of usage in modern Japanese. We also tried to give translations that were the cultural equivalent of the English. Thus, if the English word conveyed a sense of dignity, we used a dignified Japanese expression; if the English was a slangy word, we provided a slangy Japanese word or phrase.
Where this was not possible, we have provided glosses to clarify the difference. There were some exceptions. When the English word had several Japanese equivalents, each used with equal frequency, and generally interchangeable, we gave the two or three most frequent, separated by commas.
In this category fell words that could be expressed either by a Chinese compound 2 or more Chinese characters used as a single word or by a purely Japanese word. There were also words that could be expressed by a Japanese translation or a "Japanized" foreign loan word of equal frequency. In this case we gave the Japanese translation first, followed by a comma and the loan word. Where the Japanese translation existed, but was outlandish and seldom used, we gave only the loan word. In such cases the loan word is generally listed as a headword in standard Japanese dictionaries.
Finally, we discussed every entry thoroughly before adopting it It was during my first few months in Tokyo, long before I could really speak the language, and the outfit I was working for was hosting a daytime gathering to celebrate the opening of a new branch. Other than me almost everyone in attendance was Japanese, except for a foursome of business school types from the United States who had apparently sneaked out of the office upstairs where they were interning for the summer. Before the drinks were served, we all had to stand around in a big circle and introduce ourselves-in Japanese, naturally.
As it happened, the MBA boys from upstairs were up first, and I was more than curious to see what they would say. I myself did not yet know how to introduce myself in Japanese. The first American cruised through his brief introduction; he had the routine down pretty well, I thought. I probably smirked a bit, though, when the second one simply repeated the words used by the guy before him, changing only the name. When the other two Americans followed suit, rattling off the very same phrase their colleagues had, I glanced around to see if any of the native speakers found this as fishy as I did.
None did. In fact, to a man they used exactly the same phrase to introduce themselves - so I did, too. By the time my turn came around, I had my introduction down cold - Burenan desu. I even pulled off the bow that went with it Jeff Garrison , Kayoko Kimiya. All this, it is believed, will greatly assist the serious student of language in mastering any such new linguistic structure. But, now, don't let that stop you from reading the book! Why Ki? We knew right then and there that we had tapped into something big.
If a hot young Jamaican reggae-rock artist was brandishing it on his album cover, ki just had to be de rigueur. Be that as it may, our arm-twisting editors at Kodansha International, Michael Brase and Shigeyoshi Suzuki, forced us to come up with a real reason for writing the book, so we began casting about in the language to determine whether ki actually did warrant a book-length presentation.
Our answer is in your hands. We found ki everywhere, in hundreds of common idioms and compounds. We found it on the front-page screamers of national newspapers and the trembling lips of tearful actresses on daytime TV The column "Communication Cues" is designed to explain how the Japanese talk, listen, make requests, give advice, agree or disagree with others, etc. We have tried to clarify what strategies the Japanese apply to convey wishes, persuade others or decline offers, all without jeopardizing good relations.
We have discussed the most common expressions used for specific purposes and situations, reinforcing our explanations with example sentences and conversations. We tried to make these sentences and conversations as natural as possible. In explaining Japanese communications, we have placed an emphasis not only on appropriate wording but also on the development of a conversation, since the appropriate development of a conversation plays an essential part in communication. If you should skip important steps or take an inappropriate turn in development, you may fail in communicating effectively in spite of your good intentions.
In brief, we wanted to be of help to those who want to be able to communicate effectively in Japanese. These columns are designed to explain the usages of basic words that you may often find difficult to understand. Topics covered include such common nouns as mono, koto, wake, tokoro and hazu , which play an important function in daily speech as well as in written language. They reflect the speaker's psychological attitude, and to understand them fully will help you understand how the Japanese like to express themselves.
Being able to use them yourself will make your Japanese sound more natural and acceptable to native speakers. We have also explained verb phrases that are used to serve various structural functions; understanding them fully should improve your comprehension skills for both spoken and written Japanese a great deal. In discussing such matters we have tried to choose the most common expressions, explain them as clearly as possible, and reinforce the explanations with appropriate example sentences and conversations.
Depending on the situation where an expression is most commonly used, we have chosen either formal or informal speech, with an explanation each time Onomatopoeic expressions are common in Japanese not only in daily conversation but also in literary writings; their effective use in novels and poems is highly regarded. You cannot afford to disregard them either in daily conversation or in the appreciation of literary works. However, they are often thought to be difficult for foreigners. This book is in fact intended to challenge this wide-spread pessimism. Of the 50 columns, the first six explain the basic rules and tendencies found in the use of onomatopoeic words; they will give clues in approaching and exploiting the vast forest of onomatopoeia.
In the following columns we explain several expressions classified according to their usage and accompanied by example dialogues. There are so many onomatopoeic expressions in Japanese that it is impossible to learn all of them. But reading about the most common ones and learning what impression each sound has on the Japanese ear will greatly help you to feel at ease with onomatopoeic expressions. We hope you will enjoy reading the book, and we will be very happy if you feel like trying to use some of them yourself.
Even those who have acquired a basic knowledge of constructing single sentences correctly in a foreign language still occasionally have difficulty in learning how to develop discourse in that language. Lack of proper discourse development often makes a foreigner's speech sound awkward, abrupt, or hard to understand. From our experience in teaching Japanese to capable and conscientious students, we have long wanted to explain the basic patterns of discourse development with specific examples; we are happy to have been able to largely accomplish that aim in this volume.
The first dozen columns are devoted to discourse development in opening up a conversation following the "How are you? Yaeko S.
Formats and Editions of Japanese communication : language and thought in context [lukifuqodile.cf]
Habein , Gerald B. First Edition pp, pbk, Its purpose is to provide information on the structure of both individual kanji Chinese characters and kanji compounds, to enable the student to study kanji systematically. The book has been designed, not as a textbook in the strict sense, but rather as a reference book for students just beginning to study kanji and for more advanced students who feel they need to review systematically what they have learned. The nature of the content precluded ordering the presentatioin of kanji from most to least common, or in any such way as to coincide with the student's acquisition of vocabulary.
The book can, however, be used as a text if complemented by appropriate materials Mizue Sasaki. For the first time ever, over of the most commonly used idiomatic expressions in the Japanese language have been brought together and alphabetized in a single, easy-to-use volume. No longer will the student have to struggle with academic-sounding phrases and expressions.
Mizue Sasaki has successfully taken stilted formality out of Japanese, and made idiomatic communication readily possible. This handy book not only introduces essential idioms, but also provides easy-to-understand translations and numerous example sentences to show how the expressions should be used. Studying colloquial Japanese doesn't have to be hitori-zumo , a futile effort literally, "one-man sumo," as explained on page Hiroo Japanese Center. Especially with Japanese, it is crucial for the student to master verbs in order to be able to communicate effectively.
In Japanese, the importance of the subject-verb relationship is not stressed as it is in Indo-European languages such as English. In English, verb forms change depending on whether the subject is singular or plural, first person or second person, and so on. Thus, for the verb "to go," one says "I go" and "He goes.
Willingness to Communicate
In Japanese, however, verbs are not affected by their subjects in this manner; it does not make any difference whether the subject is singular or plural, or first person or second person. This, plus the fact that there are relatively few exceptions to the rules, makes Japanese verbs relatively less complicated to learn than those of many other languages. Once the students master certain rules for making such forms as the masu , imperative, te , and conditional forms, they will be able to apply these rules to almost any verb. Of course, the students should be aware that while any form can in theory be made from any verb, forms of some verbs are seldom used in ordinary situations.
Along with the main entries and their example sentences, this introduction will help the student learn both the conjugation and the usage of Japanese verbs Prem Motwani. Maruzen Co. Truncations of longish words or phrases are to be found in all languages but usually abbreviations imply the acronyms such as U. In addition, truncations like disco discotheque , exam examination , fan fanatic , ad.
As against this, abbreviations in Japanese are diverse and abundant and their number keeps increasing literally everyday. While some are used independently, many are blended with other abbreviations or words to form hybrid words. Seiichi Makino , Michio Tsutsui. After having examined major textbooks being used in Japan and the United States we have chosen what we believe to be basic grammatical items. Our descriptions and explanations have incorporated the recent findings in Japanese linguistics which we felt were of practical significance.
We have spent three years and a half preparing this dictionary. Each of us initially prepared half of the original draft: approximately entries. Upon completion of the first draft of the dictionary i. Therefore, every part of this dictionary has virtually been written by both of us. Naturally we owe a great deal to our predecessors whose works are listed in the references. Our heart-felt thanks go to them, although we could not acknowledge them individually in each entry where we used their insightful explanations The dictionary contains fifty basic patterns and explains and exemplifies them through example sentences.
When there are variations on these basic patterns, they are also explained and exemplified. The book can be used purely for reference or it can be read profitably from beginning to end as a textbook. The latter method has the benefit of fixing the patterns in the student's mind by means of repetition. There are three basic types of Japanese sentences that form the basis for the entire language; all the other sentence patterns and variations contained in this dictionary are based on one or another of these three.
Once the student has become completely familiar with these patterns, the other patterns and variations based upon them should not be difficult to pick up. These three basic sentence patterns are as follows Shueisha , Tokyo. In order to advance beyond beginning-level Japanese, students must develop facility in handling a variety of language issues both in written and in spoken Japanese, e. The entries in this volume address just such concerns. Arranged in dictionary form, with an abundance of example sentences, A Dictionary of Intermediate Japanese Grammar goes beyond the basics to provide students with information which is essential to the master of intermediate-level Japanese.
General Editor Charles Corwin. Kodansha International , Tokyo, New York. It is designed for those who have grasped the basic structure of the language and are attempting to express ideas in Japanese. The Dictionary is a shortcut to finding Japanese idiomatic expressions hitherto found only through the reading of Japanese books-a laborious and frustrating task that left the reader unsure whether the expression was in common use or was simply a phrase coined by the author.
The phrases found in the Dictionary have been checked by scholars to insure that they are, in fact, part of general Japanese speech. The Dictionary also serves as a reference which provides a systematic form for finding expressions one has heard but cannot recall. It is a memory aid, showing the range of possibilities for expressing ideas and encouraging the reader to employ his working knowledge of Japanese in the actual use of the expressions. The Dictionary is not a word list ; rather it is designed for penetration into idiom study through perusal, memorization, and usage, and can be used as a systematic guide to building one's command of Japanese idiom.
Richard Hosking. That is an important distinction that highlights the way the Japanese observe a strict distinction between Japanese style and Western or other style. Green tea is Japanese and is drunk out of Japanese-style handleless cups. Coffee is Western and is always drunk out of Western-style cups. Green tea appears in this book, coffee does not except in passing.
Curry rice, one of the most popular dishes in Japan, is not considered Japanese and therefore does not warrant an entry. The approach of this book is that of a non-Japanese living in Japan, and the book is intended to be a help to other such people, as well as to any other speakers of English wishing to know about Japanese food. There is a great need for accurate information on this subject in English.
In Japanese, a large number of excellent books is readily available, so the Japanese and those who can read Japanese are already well catered for Ads, banners and posters are often inundated with loanwords, sometimes to the extent that one hardly finds any native words in them. Such words would easily number tens of thousands. However, the use of loanwords varies from person to person according to age, sex, occupation and education and the majority of these sooner or later decay into trite, ineffective expressions not basic to the Japanese lexicon and everyday speech.
Thus the foremost problem that faces a foreigner learning the Japanese language in a foreign country, is how to make out which loanword is naturalized and which one is not. In this respect, dictionaries of loanwords available on the market are of little help as they list 20, to 30, loanwords of which only a fraction are naturalized Kodansha Ltd. For example, although the words utsukushii and kirei are both translated as 'beautiful' in English, there are slight differences in usage between them.
Depending on the circumstances, these differences may give rise to a situation in which although the usage is slightly incorrect, it is permissible, or if the usage is slightly incorrect, the meaning changes entirely. For this reason we have created this dictionary, which we hope will help students of Japanese to learn a variety of expressions and to use them correctly Obunsha , Tokyo. Regents Publishing Co. To varying degrees these students struggled with their assignment to produce "term papers of publishable quality. Their topics are of the sort that should have direct application to the teaching of English or Japanese to native speakers of the other language.
With the permission of the authors, some of these articles have been expanded and revised by the editor, primarily to state more clearly their contributions to ESL teaching. Professor Fujita's article on negation has already appeared in a slightly different form in The Journal of the Association of Teachers of Japanese , Since the comparison of cross-language data must not be limited to just that of syntactic structures, Professor Makino's article was selected to represent the area of contrastive semantics, and Ms. Kimura's study offers important insights into the area of cultural contrasts.
Both Makino's and Kimura's articles have been revised and used here by permission Akira Miura. These words have become bona fide parts of the Japanese vocabulary and have found their way into daily conversation and even, in some cases, into written work. All languages are sensitive to changes in the cultures in which they are used, but perhaps Japanese has displayed a particular facility for adapting to this era of international exchange.
Japanese has made hundreds of imported words its own. In the last few decades English has had considerable impact on this Eastern tongue. This appears remarkable when one considers the large linguistic gap between Japanese and English, and admits that few Japanese words have entered English.
Those that have been accepted in English tend to be names of things uniquely Japanese, words for which there is no English equivalent, like kimono. A list of representative words of Japanese origin used in English is contained in the Appendix It is intended primarily for the American living in Japan who wishes to acquire a good knowledge of spoken Japanese in a short time. Since English equivalents are provided for most sentences, there is no general vocabulary for the book.
If the student runs across a word he doesn't know, he should underline it and later look it up in a dictionary or ask a Japanese for its meaning. To make the most effective use of the book, the student should hire a native tutor to give him drill on the patterns provided in the lessons. During actual drill sessions, no English is to be spoken.
Sometimes it is better to have a tutor who hesitates to speak English or doesn't even know the language. It should be made very clear to the tutor-directly or through an interpreter-that the student desires drill in talking Japanese naturally, just the way the tutor himself talks. The tutor must not slow down below a natural speed, or exaggerate the pronunciation, or break his sentences in places where he wouldn't naturally pause. Any distortion of the tutor's natural speech will hinder the student's progress. Nor should the tutor attempt to explain the structure of the language; that is the purpose of the textbook.
Sometimes it is better to have a talkative person who is not too highly educated, since he will be less likely to produce bookish expressions Everett F. Dover Publications, Inc. It is astonishingly regular in its formations-exceptions and irregularities can usually be numbered on one's fingers-and once the student masters a few conventions of linguistic classifications of experience, he will find that he can express most of his wants. This is the first Japanese grammar written for the adult with a limited objective in studying Japanese: to express oneself orally with reasonable accuracy; to understand simple material addressed to oneself; to be able to analyze, understand, and enlarge material in a phrase approach or record set.
The author has limited this book to modern colloquial Japanese, and does not overburden the student with literary language, rarely used alternate forms, unnecessary abrupt forms, causatives and direct conditionals, and similar forms that might be required for a full knowledge of the written language.
On the other hand, this book is not simplified Japanese, nor baby Japanese, nor kitchen Japanese. It is the full idiomatic language, with thorough treatments of the material you really need: the noun, pronoun, adjective, demonstrative words, adverb, verb, negative forms, Chinese forms, courtesy and honorific forms, idiomatic constructions, word order, relationship of ideas, syntax, etc. Emphasis has been placed upon clarity of exposition, so that the Englishspeaking reader can understand what is really happening in Japanese, even if he has never studied any foreign language before.
For this reason, explanation rather than brute memory work is stressed, examples are given for all constructions, and both word-for-word and free translations are given, to acquaint the reader with thought-processes. Hints are given on avoiding difficult constructions. Japanese is presented in the Romaji transliteration, which can be read at sight.
Characters are not used. Glossary defining English grammatical terminology. Appendix on Japanese pronunciation and sound patterns.
Weatherhill, Inc. It is undeniable that such features as a large vocabulary, the constant coining of new words of all kinds, the complications of respectful forms of the language, and, to most Westerners at least, the peculiarities of idiom and sentence structure make Japanese appear a formidable opponent, particularly if, in the early stages of study, the material the student meets is not carefully controlled.
Any language has its difficulties, however, and Japanese is no exception in this nor, conversely, in also having aspects, such as its pronunciation, which present very few problems to most foreign students. All in all, therefore, the Japanese language as such is only marginally more difficult than, say, a European language. Where Japanese does present unique complications and difficulties is in its writing system, a combination of phonetic signs and the ideographic characters that the Japanese call kanji literally, "Chinese characters" , which, as the word suggests, were originally derived from China.
The learning of some hundred such phonetic signs and many hundred kanji constitutes a considerable barrier to the ready use of the written language, especially so since each character can have several different possible readings depending upon context, to say nothing of the quite separate problem of the characters and readings used in proper names. Yet the spoken and written forms of Japanese are so inextricably linked that a good familiarity with characters is necessary for anything more than superficial conversation, and the practical problem therefore is how best to acquire and retain a knowledge of the written forms.
This inevitably requires a great application of time and effort and there need be no end to the learning of characters Edward A. Schwartz , Reiko Ezawa. Passport Books , Lincolnwood, Illinois. What is a mikoshi? A hanamichi? If you are not sure, you should be-if you want to know Japan. For the things these words and many others like them name are so uniquely Japanese that they are untranslatable.
Indeed, Western travelers, students, teachers, and businessmen and women in Japan will regularly use these terms even when speaking in their native languages. Those not familiar with Japan, however, find verbal translations and explanations inadequate to make these terms clear and understandable.
It is the realization that words are not enough that inspired us to put this book together. We have attempted to illustrate such unique Japanese terms in the belief that one picture is worth a thousand words of explanation. Although we have been unable to illustrate every word in this book, we have illustrated or pictured as many as space allowed. For instance, what is a mikoshi? Even if we say that it is a "portable shrine," you cannot fully understand what it is until you can visualize it.
Therefore, we have included illustrations of a mikoshi so that you will be able to identify it when you see it. Conversely, if you see a mikoshi first, you can consult the illustrations of this book to learn what it is called in Japanese. However, Everyday Japanese is more than an illustrated dictionary of Japanese terms. It is also a phrase book of useful Japanese for Westerners. We know that many travelers to Japan will want to communicate with the Japanese in Japanese, since this is an excellent way to learn about Japan.
Therefore, we have assembled numerous Japanese expressions and dialogs to make communication as easy and painless as possible. But this book is still more than an illustrated dictionary of Japanese and a phrase book. It is also an introduction to Japan-primarily through the Japanese language and illustrations, but also through notes that explain certain words and give practical information useful for visitors Michael Pye. Yet when it comes to the written language there is a lot of pessimistic head-shaking.
This need not be so. Learning to read fluently is a laborious business, but the alternative is not complete illiteracy. This little book makes few demands and gives quite practical information about some of the written characters met in daily life about Tokyo and other Japanese cities. Anyone wishing to study them more seriously and systematically should turn to my book The Study of Kanji Hokuseido Press , but even the following pages will lead to some reduction in daily inconvenience. Almost all the characters included can soon be picked out on signs and posters about town Osaka University of Foreign Studies , Osaka.
Learning Kanji is perhaps one of the most difficult problems for foreign students who are having their first experience with the Japanese language. It is because Kanji appears to be innumerable and highly-complicated, and thus they sometimes seem to present an impossible task for those who have never experienced more than twenty or so - mostly very simple phonetic symbols.
However, Kanji are not so easy for Japanese students, either. They study Kanji for six years at elementary school, for three years at secondary school, and for three years at high school -- a total of twelve years. Reischauer, the former American Ambassador to Japan, once lamented that the Japanese language could not be mastered, if so, one of the reasons would certainly be the difficulties of learning Kanji Hiroko Fukuda , translated by Tom Gally. Or at least that's what some people say. But is it really so? I myself believe that Japanese is fun. And one aspect of the Japanese language that is the most fun of all is the topic of this book: onomatopoeia and mimesis.
They bring life to what otherwise might be dull and bland, and they make your spoken Japanese more natural and expressive. This book is a brief introduction to onomatopoeia and mimesis in Japanese through real-life conversations and examples. While presenting some of the most common sound and action words, I've added several other features to make the book even more useful.
The language in the book is natural spoken Japanese. Many people who study outside of Japan get a rude awakening when they first visit: they don't understand what anyone is saying.
The reason is that the language they've learned from textbooks is stiff and unnatural, often unlike what is heard in everyday life. As a countermeasure of sorts, the conversations and examples given here are all in an informal spoken style, with a balance between women's and men's language. When you read this book, I hope you will feel as though you're having a nice friendly chat in Japanese, the way it would be done if you were talking to an actual person.
The topics show the real Japan. Contrary to popular belief, few Japanese have much to do with geisha, trade negotiations, or Mt. Fuji during their daily lives. The subject matter taken up in this book show what people actually talk about at home, at work, and at play. Each of the main vocabulary items is marked G, N, or B Good, Neutral, or Bad, to show if its sense if positive, neutral, or negative. After all, nothing is more embarrassing than to use a word that has the right meaning but the wrong connotation.
Brief notes provide information on cultural background. Every language is an essential part of the culture of the people It is an introductory text for mature native speakers of English who have no previous knowledge of Japanese language. With the exception of lesson one, the organization of each lesson is : introduction of new vocabulary items, model sentences of Japanese preceded by their English equivalents, explanations of the grammatical points of the lesson, exercises, oral practice, and conversations.
Each lesson normally requires six to seven hours of class work ; however, there are some which may require more hours, and others, less.