Retrieved on Ch Social Psychology Traditional and Critical Perspectives. Pearson, Chapter 8. Biopsychology 8th Edition. New York: Pearson, Chapter The unresponsive bystander: Why doesn't he help? New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. The arousal: Cost-reward model and the process of intervention.
Clark Ed. Review of personality and social psychology: Vol. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Bibcode : PLoSO.. Child Development. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Volume Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. Prosocial motivation: Is it ever truly altruistic? Advanced Experimental Social Psychology. Handbook of Personality Psychology. Fritzsche, J. Philip Craiger, and Tamara R. Butcher and C. Spielberger Eds.
Advances in Personality Assessment, Vol. Journal of Moral Education : 1— Bibcode : Sci The article sounds a note of caution, however, for two reasons.
Firstly, "it remains unresolved whether this charity gap persists beyond the ingroup boundaries of the religious groups"; secondly, and more importantly, the sociological surveys that suggest such a gap "are entirely based on self-reports of prosocial behavior. Psychologists have long known that self-reports of socially desirable behaviors such as charitability may not be accurate, reflecting instead impression management and self-deception.
A critical examination". Psychological Bulletin.
Sociological Quarterly. American Psychologist. Multilevel effects of gender and ethnicity on workplace charitable giving". Journal of Applied Psychology. Developmental Psychology. European Journal of Developmental Psychology. Pihl; Frank Vitaro; Richard E. Tremblay January 12, Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Crockett; Jennifer M.
Wolff; Sarah J. Beal November Social Development. Retrieved 21 May Children's Daily Lives in a Mayan Village. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Perspectives on Psychological Science. Review of Research in Education. Active Learning in Higher Education. Children and Electronic Media. Retrieved Interpersonal Relations and Group Processes. Bibcode : PLoSO Computers in Human Behavior.
LaRose, Robert. Davenport, Lucinda. Chapter 13, p. The American Economic Review. March 3rd, Annual Review of Psychology. Cognition and Emotion. Journal of Personality. Psychosomatic Medicine. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. Law and Contemporary Problems. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. The mask of sanity; an attempt to reinterpret the so-called psychopathic personality. The mask of sanity 5th ed. Louis, MO: Mosby. Psychological Assessment. Psychological Medicine. European Journal of Personality. J Psychiatric Clinics of North America.
Conceptual directions for resolving the debate" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on D, Patrick, C. An individual who is temporarily sick or injured will benefit from the help that he or she might get from others during this time.
And according to the principle of reciprocal altruism, other group members will be willing to give that help to the needy individual because they expect that similar help will be given to them should they need it. However, in order for reciprocal altruism to work, people have to keep track of how benefits are exchanged, to be sure that everyone plays by the rules. If one person starts to take benefits without paying them back, this violates the principle of reciprocity and should not be allowed to continue for very long.
De Dreu, C. Hedonic tone and activation level in the mood-creativity link: Toward a dual pathway to creativity model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94 5 , — Isen, A. Positive affect as a source of human strength. Kameda, T. The logic of social sharing: An evolutionary game analysis of adaptive norm development.
Chapter 7: Human Society
Social sharing and risk reduction: Exploring a computational algorithm for the psychology of windfall gains. Mealey, L. Enhanced memory for faces of cheaters. Moreland, R. Socialization in organizations and work groups. Tooby, J. The psychological foundations of culture. Cosmides Eds. Affect, Behavior, and Cognition by Dr. Rajiv Jhangiani and Dr. Skip to content Increase Font Size.
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Introducing Social Psychology. Define and differentiate affect, behavior, and cognition as considered by social psychologists. Summarize the principles of social cognition. We use affect, behavior, and cognition to help us successfully interact with others. Social cognition refers to our thoughts about and interpretations of ourselves and other people. Over time, we develop schemas and attitudes to help us better understand and more successfully interact with others.
They also implicitly promote values, aspirations, and priorities by the way they portray the behavior of people such as children, parents, teachers, politicians, and athletes, and the attitudes they display toward violence, sex, minorities, the roles of men and women, and lawfulness.
In addition to belonging to the social and cultural settings into which they are born, people voluntarily join groups based on shared occupations, beliefs, or interests such as unions, political parties, or clubs. Membership in these groups influences how people think of themselves and how others think of them. These groups impose expectations and rules that make the behavior of members more predictable and that enable each group to function smoothly and retain its identity.
The rules may be informal and conveyed by example, such as how to behave at a social gathering, or they may be written rules that are strictly enforced. Formal groups often signal the kind of behavior they favor by means of rewards such as praise, prizes, or privileges and punishments such as threats, fines, or rejection. Affiliation with any social group, whether one joins it voluntarily or is born into it, brings some advantages of larger numbers: the potential for pooling resources such as money or labor , concerted effort such as strikes, boycotts, or voting , and identity and recognition such as organizations, emblems, or attention from the media.
Within each group, the members' attitudes, which often include an image of their group as being superior to others, help ensure cohesion within the group but can also lead to serious conflict with other groups. Such social prejudice may include blind respect for some categories of people, such as doctors or clergy, as well as blind disrespect for other categories of people who are, say, foreign-born or women. The behavior of groups cannot be understood solely as the aggregate behavior of individuals. It is not possible, for example, to understand modern warfare by summing up the aggressive tendencies of individuals.
Several children together may vandalize a building, even though none of them would do it on his or her own. By the same token, an adult will often be more generous and responsive to the needs of others as a member of, say, a club or religious group than he or she would be inclined to be in private.
The group situation provides the rewards of companionship and acceptance for going along with the shared action of the group and makes it difficult to assign blame or credit to any one person. Social organizations may serve many purposes beyond those for which they formally exist. Private clubs that exist ostensibly for recreation are frequently important places for engaging in business transactions; universities that formally exist to promote learning and scholarship may help to promote or to reduce class distinctions; and business and religious organizations often have political and social agendas that go beyond making a profit or ministering to people.
Societies, like species, evolve in directions that are opened or constrained in part by internal forces such as technological developments or political traditions. The conditions of one generation limit and shape the range of possibilities open to the next. On the one hand, each new generation learns the society's cultural forms and thus does not have to reinvent strategies for producing food, handling conflict, educating young people, governing, and so forth. It also learns aspirations for how society can be maintained and improved.
On the other hand, each new generation must address unresolved problems from the generation before: tensions that may lead to war, wide-scale drug abuse, poverty and deprivation, racism, and a multitude of private and group grievances. Slavery in the early history of the United States, for example, still has serious consequences for African-Americans and for the U. Grievances may be relieved just enough to make people tolerate them, or they may overflow into revolution against the structure of the society itself.
Many societies continue to perpetuate centuries-old disputes with others over boundaries, religion, and deeply felt beliefs about past wrongs. Governments generally attempt to engineer social change by means of policies, laws, incentives, or coercion. Sometimes these efforts work effectively and actually make it possible to avoid social conflict.
At other times they may precipitate conflict. For example, setting up agricultural communes in the Soviet Union against the farmers' wishes to farm their own private land was achieved only with armed force and the loss of millions of lives. The outlook of the Soviet Union, for example, is strongly influenced by the devastating losses it suffered in both world wars.
The societies of American Indians were ravaged and displaced by the diseases and warfare brought by colonists from Europe. In the United States, forcible importation of Africans and successive waves of immigrants from Europe, Latin America, and Asia have greatly affected the political, economic, and social systems such as labor, voting blocs, and educational programs , as well as adding to the nation's cultural variety.
Natural disasters such as storms or drought can cause failure of crops, bringing hardship and famine, and sometimes migration or revolution. Convenient communication and transportation also stimulate social change. Groups previously isolated geographically or politically become ever more aware of different ways of thinking, living, and behaving, and sometimes of the existence of vastly different standards of living.
Positive Social Behavior and Morality Social and Personal Influences
Migrations and mass media lead not only to cultural mixing but also to the extinction of some cultures and the rapid evolution of others. The size of the human population, its concentration in particular places, and its pattern of growth are influenced by the physical setting and by many aspects of culture: economics, politics, technology, history, and religion. Some religious groups also take a strong stand on population issues.
Leaders of the Roman Catholic church, for example, have long campaigned against birth control, whereas, in recent years, religious leaders of other major faiths have endorsed the use of birth control to restrict family size. Quite apart from government policy or religious doctrine, many people decide whether to have a child on the basis of practical matters such as the health risk to the mother, the value or cost of a child in economic or social terms, the amount of living space, or a personal feeling of suitability as parents.
In the United States, the trend toward casual adolescent sexual relations has led to increasing numbers of unexpected and unwanted pregnancies. Great increase in the size of a population requires greater job specialization, new government responsibilities, new kinds of institutions, and the need to marshal a more complex distribution of resources.
Population patterns, particularly when they are changing, are also influential in changing social priorities. The greater the variety of subcultures, the more diverse the provisions that have to be made for them. As the size of a social group increases, so may its influence on society. The influence may be through markets such as young people who, as a group, buy more athletic equipment , voting power for example, old people are less likely to vote for school bond legislation , or recognition of need by social planners for example, more mothers who work outside the home will require child-care programs.
Choices among alternative benefits and costs are unavoidable for individuals or for groups. To gain something we want or need, it is usually necessary to give up something we already have, or at least give up an opportunity to have gained something else instead. For example, the more the public spends as a whole on government-funded projects such as highways and schools, the less it can spend on defense if it has already decided not to increase revenue or debt.
Social trade-offs are not always economic or material. Sometimes they arise from choices between our private rights and the public good: laws concerning cigarette smoking in public places, cleaning up after pets, and highway speed limits, for instance, restrict the individual freedom of some people for the benefit of others. Or choices may arise between esthetics and utility. For example, a proposed large-scale apartment complex may be welcomed by prospective tenants but opposed by people who already live in the neighborhood.
Different people have different ideas of how trade-offs should be made, which can result in compromise or in continuing discord. How different interests are served often depends on the relative amounts of resources or power held by individuals or groups. Peaceful efforts at social change are most successful when the affected people are included in the planning, when information is available from all relevant experts, and when the values and power struggles are clearly understood and incorporated into the decision-making process.
There is often a question of whether a current arrangement should be improved or whether an entirely new arrangement should be invented. On the one hand, repeatedly patching up a troublesome situation may make it just tolerable enough that the large-scale change of the underlying problem is never undertaken. On the other hand, rushing to replace every system that has problems may create more problems than it solves. It is difficult to compare the potential benefits of social alternatives. In a very large population, value comparisons are further complicated by the fact that a very small percentage of the population can be a large number of people.
For example, in a total population of million, a rise in the unemployment rate of only one-hundredth of 1 percent which some people would consider trivially small would mean a loss of 10, jobs which other people would consider very serious. Judgments of consequences in social trade-offs tend to involve other issues as well.
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One is a distance effect: The farther away in distance or the further away in time the consequences of a decision are, the less importance we are likely to give them. City dwellers, for instance, are less likely to support national crop-support legislation than are farmers, and farmers may not wish to have their federal tax dollars pay for inner-city housing projects.
As individuals, we find it difficult to resist an immediate pleasure even if the long-term consequences are likely to be negative, or to endure an immediate discomfort for an eventual benefit. As a society, similarly, we are likely to attach more importance to immediate benefits such as rapidly using up our oil and mineral deposits than to long-term consequences shortages that we or our descendants may suffer later. The effect of distance in judging social trade-offs is often augmented by uncertainty about whether potential costs and benefits will occur at all. If relative value measures can also be placed on all the possible outcomes, the probabilities and value measures can be combined to estimate which alternative would be the best bet.
But even when both probabilities and value measures are available, there may be debate about how to put the information together. People may be so afraid of some particular risk, for example, that they insist that it be reduced to as close to zero as possible, regardless of what other benefits or risks are involved. And finally, decisions about social alternatives are usually complicated by the fact that people are reactive. When a social program is undertaken to achieve some intended effect, the inventiveness of people in promoting or resisting that effect will always add to the uncertainty of the outcome.