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ISBN 13: 9780521873598

PDF Preview. Table of Contents. Related Content. Author: John C. Avoiding the many scholarly controversies concerning the pope, it offers a concise and balanced portrait of the man and his pontificate. Its chronological organization-unusual in biographies of Innocent-enables the reader to see how the pope was usually dealing with many different subjects at the same time, and that the events in one aspect of his life could influence his views of other topics.

This structure, together with the thorough documentation, can provide new insights even for scholars well-versed in his pontificate. Written in clear, jargon-free English, the book also gives the students and general reader a good sense of this pope and of the medieval papacy. A Companion to Meister Eckhart.

Author: Jeremiah Hackett. This book meets an obvious need in English language studies on Meister Eckhart.

The Wandering Heretics of Languedoc by Caterina Bruschi

It is the first handbook on Eckhart for graduate and undergraduate students. It is divided into three parts. Moore and Mark Gregory Pegg. Pegg argues that this culture evolved in order to smooth the troubled social waters that resulted from the fragmented land ownership that characterized medieval Languedoc society , pp. Rather than presenting this argument as a hypothesis, however, he simply asserts that the culture of cortezia operated as he postulates.

The lack of such evidence, it seems to me, is a point of weakness in Pegg's argument. Moore's views have evolved over time; although his earlier views about Cathars see, e. Among these conditions were the passions aroused by the Gregorian reform movement of the eleventh century, which had the effect of strengthening papal and clerical authority, and gave rise to charismatic preachers who, though outside the clerical establishment, sought to live a holy life based on the lives of Christ and the Apostles. While some of these holy men, and the communities that formed around them, were accepted by the Catholic Church, others—whether due to the nature of their beliefs and practices or their refusal to obey their bishops—were viewed as heretics.

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He sees the alleged heresy as a manifestation of the anticlericalism that arose during the Gregorian reform period Biget, , pp. By examining the two historiographical camps holistically, we can discern certain commonalities in each. If a Catholic polemicist accuses heretics in Languedoc of dualism, it must have been a dualist heresy. Grundmann observed that medieval religion and heresy were two sides of the same coin, with the same drive towards pursuit of a holy life resulting in approved religious movements and, when these refused to yield to ecclesiastical authority and supervision, heresy Grundmann, , pp.

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As productive as this has been for medieval history, Grundmann does not anchor his analysis in specific social and political contexts, but views this attitude as pervasive throughout Latin Christendom. It is not only Pegg who criticizes Grundmann's approach; Claire Taylor, a traditionalist scholar, criticizes Grundmann for neglecting realities on the ground and urges historians to take social, political, and cultural context into account in interpreting both religious movements and heresy Taylor, , pp.

The skeptics are more interested than the traditionalists in interrogating the sources as to the biases of the authors, the purpose for which a given text was written, the circumstances of its production, and the use to which it was put. As noted, Moore in particular emphasizes the need to read the sources in the order in which they were written, without reading meaning from later sources backwards into earlier ones. Furthermore, they argue that the roots of many beliefs attributed to the heretics can be found in the existing Latin Christian belief system, without recourse to dualist heresy or Eastern influence, as well as in the anticlericalism and dedication to the apostolic life that arose parallel with the Gregorian reform Biget, , pp.

Unsurprisingly, each side criticizes the other for failing to observe proper historical methodology. Skeptics take traditionalists to task for ignoring the chronology of sources as well as their context. On the other hand, traditionalists argue that if a source states something plainly heretics were dualists, for example , it does not make sense to ignore the plain meaning of the text.

Others note that Corruption of Angels , in particular, bases its argument exclusively on one manuscript source for testimony of accused heretics, when in fact, we have many inquisition registers containing such testimony Hamilton, ; Taylor, , p.

The debate over how to read sources frequently includes arguments over their authenticity. Traditionalists such as Hamilton , p. This Bogomil order believed in the existence of two equal gods, one good and one evil, in contrast to the Bulgarian dualists who believed in one god and an evil principle emanating from a fallen angel.

According to the Charter of Niquinta, the document describing this meeting, Papa Nicetas persuaded the local heretical bishops to adopt his form of dualism and consecrated new bishops. The Charter of Niquinta purports to be a copy of an original dated May , but the charter's authenticity is the subject of an ongoing controversy. What should we call the people identified by the Catholic Church as dualist heretics? As in many areas of medieval history, the very terminology used to discuss the debate is hotly contested.

Unsurprisingly, the terminology debate aligns with the debate over the existence of Catharism itself. They take exception to the implication that the dualist heresy existed in the first place at least as far as the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries are concerned. Nor, they argue, should it be used simply for the sake of convenience, because it is incorrect and misleading Moore, , p.

Series: Cambridge Studies In Medieval Life And Thought [4th Series]

There is a range of possibilities. Although the term is widely used in the inquisition records, she argues that it was most often adopted by the inquisitors rather than those being questioned and therefore is unlikely to be what this group called themselves, as skeptics claim , p. Those not immersed in medieval heresy studies, or unfamiliar with medieval Languedoc, may not realize that there is an alternative to the traditional narrative they are likely to encounter in history texts.

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Generalist and specialist historians operate on entirely different planes, and developments in the field do not filter down to survey texts and students. We must also, as Pegg cautions, avoid falling into the trap of assuming that belief and practice are constant. Religious beliefs and practices in medieval Europe, and how and when they were perceived as heretical, changed with time and circumstance.

So too, historiographical trends change over time, so that it no longer seems obvious that the presence of dualists in the Balkans meant the presence of dualist heretics in Western Europe, or that dissident thinkers in one area of Europe necessarily implied that dissidents in other areas were linked in a common institution.

Similarities may be coincidental or may arise out of similar causes; disparate responses to the tensions inherent in medieval Latin Christendom may have resembled one another. We must heed Moore's and Pegg's warnings about how to approach the past, but we must also acknowledge the traditionalists' caution that sometimes sources should be taken at their word.

The ambiguity inherent in this debate offers a valuable pedagogical opportunity: definitive knowledge about the past is, ultimately, unattainable, and even something as simple as a label may contain within itself the contradictions of our unstable and incomplete sources. Seller Inventory n. Book Description Condition: NEW. For all enquiries, please contact Herb Tandree Philosophy Books directly - customer service is our primary goal.

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